All systems from atoms to asteroids, i.e. from 10^{-10} m to 10^{5} m, come to equilibrium under the action of the squeezing pressure of (mainly) electrostatic forces of the form Σ_{j}∓e^{2}/r_{ij}^{2} and the expansive pressure of the quantum perpetual motion associated with the Heisenberg/Pauli kinetic energy given by the formula E_{K} ∝ ℏ^{2}N^{5/3}/m_{e}V^{2/3}. Thus all physical quantities ought to depend on the universal constants ℏ, e, m_{e} or, equivalently, ℏ, e, a_{B}≡ℏ^{2}/m_{e}^{2} and possibly others. This allows extensive use of dimensional analysis coupled with a "little physical thinking" as a tool for estimating the values of physical quantities.
The size and the ionization potential of the atoms is obtained this way; to obtain the angular dependence of the atomic orbitals, which determines the structure of the periodic table of the elements, requires some simple mathematical manipulations. Dimensional analysis and a "little physical thinking" produces reasonable estimates for quantities associated with molecules, solids, and liquids with the exception of electrical conductivity; this last failure proves to be revealing in understanding the true nature of the motion of detached electrons in solids.
See text.