The Facility for X-ray Diffraction of the University of Duisburg-Essen will be presenting the different possibilities of measurements with various examples in powder X-Ray diffraction (PXRD), especially for the investigation of nanostructural materials. In the introductory lectures, some aspects of crystallography and X-ray diffraction will be given, such as the history of X-rays, radiation protection, and work principles of the X-Ray device (diffractometer). Also, the information content of powder diffractograms and the Rietveld-method, with related mathematical background, will be discussed. Within the topic of powder diffraction and the use of the Rietveld refinement, we have several important scientific questions including, but not limited to the following: How are the amorphous and crystalline parts of mixed powders identified (quantitative Phase analysis)? How are the crystallite size, residual stress, texture effect and preferred site occupation of atoms determined? How is it possible to investigate a thin coating on the substrate and nanomaterials (in solution/powder)? Which advantages does the characterization of samples in temperature/gas chamber give? All of these scientific problems can be solved by the use of X-Ray diffractometers in different geometries (e.g. Bragg-Brentano and Debye-Scherrer), working for example on the devices Bruker D8 Advance and Panalytical Empyrean.